As a warehouse manager, you understand the importance of measuring your warehouse’s performance. Measuring metrics is the essential step that connects all your other processes and enables you to track performance trends, evaluate your operational efficiency, identify potential issues, mitigate risks, and achieve much more. Measuring warehouse KPIs involves a complex set of tasks that require careful attention to detail. Fortunately, there are now numerous warehouse technologies available that are specifically designed to optimize processes and improve warehouse KPIs. These technologies offer warehouse managers innovative solutions to enhance performance and improve overall operations.
In addition to financial statements and performance reviews, businesses can also measure warehouse performance through the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). These metrics provide insights into how effectively warehouse processes are meeting their objectives, and one way to develop them is through the use of computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) software. Warehouse KPIs can be used to evaluate specific processes or operations, comparing current performance to past numbers and industry benchmarks. By regularly monitoring and analyzing KPI data, businesses can identify areas for improvement and optimize their warehouse management processes to achieve greater efficiency and success.
Although every warehouse operates differently, most warehouse management KPIs can be applied to most warehouses. However, not all KPIs are relevant to every business goal, and it is unnecessary to use every KPI. Instead, you can select the most relevant ones for your current objectives. So, how can you identify the KPIs you need? In this article, we will explore commonly used warehouse KPIs and their potential benefits, enabling you to select the KPIs that align with your business objectives.
Inventory KPIs are important because they help businesses measure and track the efficiency and effectiveness of their inventory management processes. By monitoring and analyzing these KPIs, businesses can identify areas for improvement, optimize their inventory management processes, and reduce costs associated with carrying inventory. For example, tracking inventory accuracy and stockout rates can help businesses ensure that they have the right products in stock when customers need them while monitoring the carrying cost of inventory can help businesses identify and reduce unnecessary costs associated with storing and maintaining inventory. Overall, inventory KPIs play a critical role in helping businesses achieve optimal inventory management and maximize their profitability.
This KPI measures the accuracy of inventory data in your warehouse management system. It includes the number of inventory errors, such as discrepancies between what is recorded in the system and what is physically available in the warehouse. Inventory tracking is typically automated using systems like a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), but discrepancies can occur between the recorded and actual inventory levels for several reasons, including theft, damage, miscalculations, and supplier shortages. The inventory accuracy KPI calculates the difference between the recorded and physical inventory levels by dividing the inventory tracked by the system by the inventory physically present in the warehouse. The higher the resulting value is to 1, the more accurate the inventory tracking is deemed to be.
Shrinkage is a type of discrepancy that can impact inventory accuracy, referring to excess inventory recorded in accounting but no longer physically available in the warehouse. This issue can arise due to several reasons, such as theft, damage, or miscalculations. The inventory accuracy KPI not only measures the degree of agreement between recorded and actual inventory levels but also helps determine the value of inventory that is missing from the warehouse due to factors like shrinkage. By identifying such discrepancies, organizations can take corrective actions to improve inventory accuracy and reduce the risk of losses caused by shrinkage.
Carrying Cost Of Inventory
The carrying cost of inventory refers to the expenses incurred by a business for holding, storing, and owning its inventory. This cost encompasses various expenses such as warehousing, insurance, obsolescence, and more. It’s a crucial metric that helps businesses understand the amount of money they spend on maintaining inventory levels.
By calculating carrying costs, businesses can determine how long they can hold their inventory before incurring losses, especially in cases of slow-moving inventory and dead stock. This KPI is calculated by dividing the total carrying costs by the average inventory cost.
Effective management of carrying costs can help businesses reduce the financial burden of inventory management and free up capital for other important business operations. Additionally, it can help businesses identify slow-moving inventory and prevent stockouts by adjusting their inventory levels.
The Inventory Turnover Ratio KPI measures the frequency at which a business sells and replaces its inventory within a specific period. It’s calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory value during that period.
This KPI is essential in evaluating inventory management and efficiency in converting inventory into sales. A high inventory turnover ratio is generally considered a positive sign, indicating that a business is efficiently managing its inventory, while a low ratio may suggest the opposite.
A business can use this KPI to identify slow-moving or dead inventory, adjust inventory levels, and optimize purchasing and sales strategies.
The Stock-Out Rate KPI measures the percentage of customer orders that cannot be fulfilled due to products being out of stock at the time of order placement.
This KPI is crucial in assessing the availability of products in a business’s inventory and the effectiveness of inventory management. A high stock-out rate can lead to lost sales opportunities, decreased customer satisfaction, and a damaged reputation.
By monitoring the stock-out rate, a business can proactively manage inventory levels, optimize supply chain management, and improve demand forecasting to minimize stock-outs and ensure product availability for customers.
Order Cycle Time
The order processing time is a critical performance indicator that measures the efficiency of order fulfillment operations. This KPI tracks the time taken to process an order, starting from the moment it is received until it is shipped to the customer. It encompasses various stages of order processing, including picking, packing, and shipping the order.
A shorter order processing time indicates a faster turnaround, which can lead to higher customer satisfaction and increased sales. Organizations can use this KPI to identify bottlenecks in their order fulfillment process and take necessary actions to improve efficiency. By optimizing their order processing time, organizations can reduce operational costs, enhance productivity, and gain a competitive edge in the market.
The Space Utilization KPI tracks the percentage of warehouse space currently in use compared to the total available space.
By monitoring space utilization, a business can determine how efficiently its warehouse space is being utilized and identify potential areas for improvement. This KPI can also help businesses forecast future space requirements and optimize inventory storage.
A high space utilization percentage may indicate an effective inventory management strategy and efficient use of warehouse space. On the other hand, a low space utilization percentage may indicate poor inventory management or underutilization of available space.
Overall, tracking the Space Utilization KPI can help businesses optimize warehouse operations, reduce unnecessary costs, and improve overall efficiency. Inventory to sales ratio
Inventory To Sales Ratio
The inventory-to-sales ratio KPI provides valuable insights for warehouse managers. This ratio represents the relationship between the remaining inventory at the end of the month and the sales made during the same period. This KPI is beneficial for several reasons. Firstly, it can help managers predict potential cash flow issues by identifying when rising inventory levels coincide with falling sales. Secondly, the inventory-to-sales ratio can help calculate how much stock needs to be purchased to avoid backorders and maintain comfortable sales levels. By analyzing this ratio, managers can make informed decisions about inventory management and optimize their operations. To calculate the inventory-to-sales ratio, simply divide the remaining inventory at the end of the month by the sales made during the same period.
Warehouse KPIs that measure receiving performance are among the most critical metrics for warehouse operations. This process marks the beginning of warehouse operations, and any inefficiencies during receiving can significantly impact subsequent processes. To ensure efficient warehouse operations, it is essential to monitor receiving KPIs. These metrics include the accuracy of received items, the time it takes to receive and inspect goods, and the cost of receiving per unit. By tracking these KPIs, businesses can identify potential bottlenecks, optimize their receiving processes, and improve overall warehouse efficiency. Therefore, receiving KPIs is crucial for any business that wants to maintain a streamlined warehouse operation and provide excellent customer service.
Inventory receiving efficiency is a critical performance metric that measures the productivity of employees working in the receiving area of a warehouse. By calculating the efficiency of inventory receiving, businesses can identify areas for improvement and determine whether new training sessions or better processes are needed. This formula is calculated by dividing the volume of inventory received by the number of staff hours worked.
Improving inventory receiving efficiency can lead to several benefits, such as increased customer satisfaction, reduced costs, better inventory management, improved supplier relations, and compliance with regulations. High inventory-receiving efficiency means that employees are effectively and efficiently processing incoming shipments, ensuring that products are available for customers when they need them. It can also result in fewer errors and returns, reducing the time and costs associated with restocking, reshipping, and handling customer complaints. Overall, focusing on improving inventory receiving efficiency can help businesses improve their bottom line and gain a competitive edge in the marketplace.
Receiving accuracy is a critical performance metric that measures the percentage of received orders that are correct. This is determined by comparing the received orders to the purchase orders, and the result is the proportion of accurately received orders relative to all purchase orders. Receiving accuracy is essential to ensure that customers receive the right products in the right quantities, which can boost customer satisfaction and loyalty. It is also crucial for cost savings, as incorrect receipts can result in costly returns, restocking fees, and shipping expenses. Maintaining high levels of receiving accuracy can help businesses improve their inventory management by ensuring that inventory counts are correct, which is essential for managing inventory levels and preventing stockouts. Moreover, it helps establish good relationships with suppliers by ensuring that they are paid the correct amount for the products they provide. The formula for calculating receiving accuracy is the Volume of inventory received / Number of staff hours worked
Cost Of Receiving Per Line
The cost of receiving per line is the total expense incurred in receiving a line of products from vendors, which includes handling, accounting, and related processes. This metric is crucial for businesses to monitor as it can help identify opportunities to optimize the receiving process and reduce expenses, leading to increased efficiency and cost savings. A decrease in the cost of receiving per line over time indicates that the business is becoming more efficient in handling incoming shipments, resulting in faster inventory processing and availability. Additionally, optimizing the receiving process can improve supplier relationships by ensuring that the correct payment is made for the products received, reducing payment errors and disputes. The formula for calculating the cost of receiving per line is the total cost of receiving divided by the total number of items in each receiving line.
Receiving Cycle Time
Receiving cycle time is an important KPI for warehouse managers as it helps identify bottlenecks in the receiving process and provides insights into the efficiency of the warehouse’s receiving operations. This process involves several steps, including accounting for the stock, categorizing it, and storing it. To calculate this metric, you can divide the total time spent on sorting the received stock by the total number of items received.
Dock Door Utilization
Utilization is a metric that measures the percentage of total dock doors utilized in a warehouse. This metric is important as it provides insight into how well the warehouse is utilizing its resources and whether there is a need to optimize dock door usage to improve efficiency.
The putaway process begins after goods are received, where each item is placed at a designated location for convenient retrieval. Efficient putaway is essential for a smooth picking process and for reducing lead time. After goods are received, each item is placed at a designated location for convenient retrieval. Tracking KPIs related to the putaway process, such as putaway accuracy, putaway time, and putaway cost, provides a clear understanding of its effectiveness. Putaway accuracy KPI ensures that items are placed in the correct location, reducing the risk of picking errors. Putaway time KPI measures how quickly items are placed, allowing for higher inventory processing. Putaway cost KPI helps to maintain the highest level of efficiency while keeping the process within budget.
Putaway Cost Per Line
Putaway cost per line KPI is an essential indicator that measures the cost of storing a complete line of items in a warehouse. This KPI is instrumental in reducing the overall cost of the putaway process. It can be calculated by dividing the total cost incurred during putaway by the total number of line items.
By tracking this KPI, warehouse managers can identify opportunities to optimize the putaway process, minimize costs and increase efficiency. The higher the putaway cost per line, the greater the inefficiencies in the warehouse management system, which can lead to additional expenses and reduced profitability. Therefore, it is essential to monitor this KPI regularly to ensure that the warehouse operations are cost-effective and efficient.
Putaway Productivity is a KPI that measures the amount of stock put away by each warehouse clerk per hour. This metric is crucial for evaluating the productivity of warehouse staff and identifying opportunities for improvement. A higher putaway productivity rate indicates that warehouse clerks are efficiently handling stock, while a lower rate suggests that there may be issues with staff training or warehouse layout.
By tracking Putaway Productivity, warehouse managers can identify areas where productivity can be improved, such as through better staff training, optimizing warehouse layout, or investing in automation technologies. Improving Putaway Productivity can lead to shorter cycle times, lower labor costs, and ultimately, higher customer satisfaction levels.
Putaway Productivity is a critical KPI for evaluating the efficiency of warehouse operations and identifying opportunities for improvement. By tracking this metric, warehouse managers can optimize warehouse productivity, reduce costs, and provide a better experience for customers.
Putaway Accuracy Rate
The accuracy rate is a key performance indicator that measures the percentage of items that have been correctly stored during the first attempt. It is an important metric that determines the efficiency of an organization’s inventory management system. When the accuracy rate is equal to 1, it means that no errors or mistakes have been made during the inventory management process. To calculate the accuracy rate, the total amount of inventory that has been correctly stored is divided by the total amount of inventory that has been put away. Achieving a high accuracy rate is crucial for organizations as it ensures that customers receive their orders correctly and on time, reduces the likelihood of costly errors, and enables efficient use of resources. Therefore, monitoring and improving the accuracy rate is important for optimizing inventory management processes and achieving high levels of customer satisfaction.
Labor and Equipment Utilization:
Labor and Equipment Utilization is a KPI that measures the proportion of labor and material handling equipment utilized during the put-away process. This metric is essential for assessing the efficiency of warehouse operations and determining whether resources are being utilized effectively. A high utilization rate indicates that resources are being efficiently utilized, while a low utilization rate suggests that there may be opportunities for improvement.
By tracking Labor and Equipment Utilization, warehouse managers can identify areas where there is an excess capacity or where more resources are needed. This KPI can help managers make informed decisions about staffing levels and equipment investments, ultimately leading to more efficient and cost-effective operations. In summary, tracking Labor and Equipment Utilization is critical for optimizing warehouse performance and achieving operational excellence.
Putaway Cycle Time:
The putaway cycle time KPI measures the average time taken to store a single inventory item in its designated location. A shorter putaway cycle time indicates higher warehouse efficiency. This KPI can be improved by optimizing the warehouse layout, repositioning items, and enhancing employee productivity.
Reducing putaway cycle time is essential for improving warehouse performance, as it enables faster processing of incoming inventory and makes the inventory available for order fulfillment. By monitoring this KPI regularly, warehouse managers can identify bottlenecks in the putaway process and implement measures to enhance efficiency.
A prolonged putaway cycle time can cause delays in processing and dispatching orders, resulting in dissatisfied customers and lost revenue. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the putaway cycle time to ensure smooth warehouse operations and maintain customer satisfaction. This is usually calculated by taking the Total time taken for putaway / Total number of items put away
Order Management KPIs
Order management consists of all the processes that occur from the moment your company receives a customer order until the customer receives their purchased items. This involves various tasks such as order processing, product picking, packaging, shipping to the correct delivery location, and handling post-sales procedures like returns and refunds. The key performance indicators (KPIs) for order management are used to evaluate the efficiency of each of these processes and ensure that they are running smoothly.
Picking accuracy is a crucial KPI that measures the accuracy of selecting items from your warehouse for customer orders. Achieving a high level of picking accuracy ensures that the right products are delivered to your customers, which can increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. This KPI can be calculated by subtracting the total number of incorrect item returns from the total number of orders and then dividing the result by the total number of orders.
Improving picking accuracy is essential for overall warehouse efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Reducing picking errors can reduce costs associated with reshipping incorrect items, lowering labor costs, and improving productivity. Therefore, tracking picking accuracy and implementing measures to improve it is essential for a successful order management process.
Picking And Packing Cost
Picking and packing cost is a KPI that measures the cost of picking and packing each order, from the time it is accepted to the time it is shipped. This KPI is important as it helps businesses to keep their order fulfillment costs low and maintain profitability. This is usually calculated by taking the Total cost of picking and packing / Total number of orders
By tracking the picking and packing cost KPI, businesses can identify inefficiencies and areas of improvement in their order management processes. For example, they can analyze the cost of labor, materials, and equipment used in picking and packing orders, and look for ways to optimize these costs. They can also identify orders that have a high picking and packing cost and adjust the pricing or shipping options to reduce these costs.
Total Order Cycle Time
The total order cycle time is the average duration between the moment a customer places an order and the time it is shipped. This KPI considers all the stages in between, such as accepting the order, picking the necessary items, packing them, and getting them ready for shipment. A shorter order cycle time indicates better order management efficiency, and it increases the likelihood of customer satisfaction and retention. This is usually calculated by taking the Total time taken to fulfill orders)/ (Total number of orders shipped.
Reducing the order cycle time is critical for businesses looking to improve their order management processes. By tracking this KPI, you can identify bottlenecks in your system and implement changes to streamline your order fulfillment process. This can lead to improved customer experience, increased sales, and a better reputation for your business.
Order Lead Time
Order lead time is a key performance indicator that measures the average time it takes for a customer’s order to be delivered after it has been placed. It is calculated by adding the order processing time and the shipping time. The faster the order lead time, the more satisfied the customer is likely to be. This KPI is important because it can directly impact customer satisfaction and retention.
By tracking order lead time, a business can identify areas where they can streamline their order management and shipping processes, reducing the time it takes for the customer to receive their order. This can also help a business to gain a competitive edge by offering faster delivery times than its competitors.
Fulfillment Accuracy Rate
This KPI, called Order Fulfillment Rate, is essential to measuring the effectiveness of your order management process. It calculates the percentage of customer orders that have been successfully fulfilled, including accurate delivery, timely arrival, and correct products. A high order fulfillment rate indicates that your order management processes are functioning well, which can lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. On the other hand, a low order fulfillment rate can lead to unhappy customers, a damaged reputation, and loss of business. This is usually calculated by taking the Orders completed without issues / Total orders received.
The formula for calculating the order fulfillment rate is dividing the number of orders completed without any issues by the total number of orders received. By regularly tracking and analyzing this KPI, you can identify any inefficiencies in your order management process and take necessary actions to improve it.
Backorder rates measure the number of orders that cannot be fulfilled immediately due to insufficient inventory, and it is an important KPI because it provides insight into your business’s ability to meet customer demand. High backorder rates can indicate problems with forecasting and inventory management, leading to potential customer dissatisfaction and lost sales.
To calculate this KPI, divide the total number of backorders by the total number of orders. A high backorder rate indicates that you need to analyze and improve your forecasting, planning, and inventory tracking processes. By reducing your backorder rate, you can improve customer satisfaction, increase sales, and optimize inventory levels.
On-Time Shipping Rate
The on-time shipping rate is a significant KPI that helps businesses assess the efficiency of their shipping processes. This metric is crucial as it directly impacts customer satisfaction, and businesses need to maintain a high on-time shipping rate to prevent customer dissatisfaction.
The formula to calculate the on-time shipping rate is by dividing the number of orders that have been shipped on time or in advance by the total number of orders shipped. This KPI provides valuable insights into the effectiveness of a business’s shipping operations, enabling them to identify any issues and take necessary actions to improve efficiency and meet customer expectations.
Maintaining a high on-time shipping rate is essential for businesses to enhance customer experience, improve loyalty and retention, and gain a competitive edge. Therefore, monitoring this KPI is critical as it helps businesses to identify any areas of improvement in their shipping processes and take necessary actions to maintain a high on-time shipping rate.
Cost Per Order
Cost per order is a KPI for businesses as it reflects the efficiency of their order fulfillment process. By monitoring this metric, businesses can identify any costly inefficiencies in their operations and take necessary steps to reduce them. The cost-per-order KPI helps businesses to optimize their order fulfillment costs, remain competitive, and maximize profitability.
To calculate the cost per order, businesses divide the total fulfillment costs by the total number of orders, which gives an average cost incurred per order. This KPI provides businesses with valuable insights into their order fulfillment expenses, helping them to optimize their processes, streamline operations, and reduce costs. By keeping the cost per order under control, businesses can ensure that they are fulfilling orders efficiently while maintaining profitability.
Rate Of Returns
The rate of returns is a significant KPI that provides valuable insights to businesses about the percentage of customers who have returned their purchased items. This KPI enables businesses to identify potential problems with their products or services and improve their operations to meet customer needs more effectively.
Calculating the rate of returns involves dividing the number of returned items by the total number of items sold and converting it to a percentage. This calculation is usually done by multiplying the quotient of items returned and items sold by 100, represented as (Items returned / Items sold) * 100. By tracking the rate of returns, businesses can monitor customer satisfaction levels and take necessary actions to improve their product or service quality, leading to increased customer loyalty and retention.
As the need for an always-on supply chain continues to increase, warehouses must take on additional responsibilities and roles. To measure the success of warehouse operations with respect to distribution, the following key performance indicators (KPIs) should be considered:
Order Lead Time
The timely delivery of customer orders is a performance metric for warehouses and distribution centers. The average time taken for an order to reach the customer after it has been placed is an important KPI in this regard. This KPI helps measure the efficiency of the warehouse operations in fulfilling customer orders. The number of orders the warehouse delivered without error. It indicates the success rate of the warehouse/distribution center.
Another significant KPI for warehouses is the Perfect Order Rate, which measures the number of orders that were successfully delivered without any errors. This metric is essential as it indicates the accuracy and effectiveness of warehouse operations. A high Perfect Order Rate demonstrates that the warehouse is capable of delivering orders accurately and efficiently, leading to customer satisfaction and retention.
Perfect Order Rate:
The number of orders delivered without error is a crucial KPI for warehouses and distribution centers. This metric provides insights into the accuracy and effectiveness of warehouse operations in fulfilling customer orders. The KPI reflects the percentage of orders that were successfully delivered without any errors, including incorrect or damaged items, delays, or missing products. A high percentage of orders delivered without error indicates a high success rate in the warehouse or distribution center. This KPI is vital because it indicates the level of customer satisfaction, retention, and loyalty, which are crucial for business success. By tracking this KPI, businesses can identify potential problems with their operations and take necessary actions to improve the accuracy and efficiency of their warehouse operations. Ultimately, delivering orders without error is essential for businesses to maintain a positive reputation, build customer trust, and increase profitability.
Back Order Rate:
The rate at which orders are coming in for items that are out of stock. There are situations wherein unexpected spike in demand causes this. However, if this rate is consistently high, it is an indication that there are lapses in planning and forecasting.
As a warehouse manager, you’re probably aware of how vital it is to measure your warehouse’s performance. Measurement is the step that ties all your other processes together and allows you to keep track of performance trends, gauge how efficiently you’re operating, uncover potential problems, manage risks, and much more.
Large warehouses often rely on heavy equipment for their operations, which can be beneficial but also pose some risks. To prevent accidents and ensure a safe working environment, businesses should track KPIs related to warehouse accidents. By monitoring accident-related KPIs, such as the number of incidents, injuries, or near-misses, businesses can identify potential hazards and take necessary actions to improve safety protocols and prevent accidents in the future. Prioritizing safety in the warehouse not only protects employees but also helps to minimize costs associated with workplace accidents and disruptions to operations. Therefore, keeping an eye on warehouse accident-related KPIs is crucial for businesses to ensure safe and efficient warehouse operations.
Accidents Per Year
This KPI monitors the number of significant accidents that result in time and financial costs over a given year. Ideally, this number should be zero, but if not, tracking this KPI can provide valuable insights into the scale of the problem. By measuring this metric, businesses can identify the frequency and severity of accidents that occur in the workplace, enabling them to take necessary actions to reduce the risks of similar incidents in the future. Moreover, minimizing accidents that result in time and financial costs can enhance employee safety and reduce the potential for operational disruptions. Therefore, tracking this KPI is critical for businesses to maintain a safe working environment, minimize costs, and optimize their warehouse operations.
Time Since Last Accident
This indicator measures the length of time since the last recorded accident in the workplace. A high number in this KPI indicates that accidents are infrequent and that the workplace is relatively safe. By monitoring this KPI, businesses can identify potential risks and take the necessary precautions to prevent accidents from happening. Additionally, maintaining a safe workplace not only benefits employees but also minimizes operational disruptions and costs associated with accidents. Therefore, tracking this KPI is essential for businesses to demonstrate their commitment to workplace safety, improve employee morale, and enhance the efficiency and productivity of their warehouse operations.
Managing The KPI Process
Managing warehouse KPIs is a critical process for businesses to optimize their warehouse operations and ensure customer satisfaction. To effectively manage KPIs, businesses can leverage Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), which are software applications designed to track and manage maintenance operations. CMMS can help businesses track KPIs related to warehouse efficiencies, such as order fulfillment speed, inventory accuracy, and on-time delivery rate. By using CMMS, businesses can automate KPI tracking and generate real-time reports to identify potential problems and take necessary actions to improve warehouse operations. Additionally, CMMS can help businesses optimize preventive maintenance schedules to minimize equipment downtime and reduce the likelihood of accidents. By integrating CMMS into their warehouse operations, businesses can improve KPI tracking, enhance operational efficiency, and ultimately, maximize profitability.
The performance of a warehouse management system can be evaluated by measuring several critical KPIs. These KPIs can help businesses identify areas for improvement in their warehouse operations and optimize their software performance to enhance their efficiency. While industry benchmarks provide a useful reference, it is important to note that each warehouse has unique circumstances that may affect KPI performance. Therefore, managers must develop a customized improvement plan that addresses specific areas of weakness and sets realistic improvement targets. Additionally, keeping up with the latest technology trends and upgrading warehouse management software can help businesses stay ahead of the competition and improve their overall performance. By prioritizing KPI measurement and improvement planning, businesses can enhance their warehouse management services and achieve long-term success.
NOTE: Although the calculations provided are commonly used by many companies today, businesses may have their own unique formulas for measuring performance metrics.